12 May 2019

Virgo Potens, ora pro nobis

I once photocopied a fine baroque engraving of Virgo Potens. The Mother of God is portrayed in an oval, holding what I presume must be a Marshal's baton. By her head is written Omnia possum in eo. Round the oval is a fearsome array of arms, from bows and arrows to cannons. There is a bust of Minerva at the top. Around this is written Fecit potentiam in brachio suo, and underneath In manu tua virtus et potentia I Paral 29. [Paralipomena is what Protestants call Chronicles]. Beneath our Lady is a field crammed with (I presume) military pavilions; on the left, the elegant figure of Jael (nice shapely arm) wielding a hammer over the prostrate figure of Sisera [Judges 4] balancing, on the other side, Judith brandishing (delightfully graceful wrist) Holophernes' head [Judith 13].

Beneath it all, the letters C.P.S.C.M. [??] and "Klauber Cath sc[ulpsit] et exe[ravit] A.V. [?].

Very much in the spirit of the Akathist Hymn, and its portrayal of the Theotokos as a successful Field Martial. And of the Lady of Victories who wasted no time at Lepanto!

Sadly, in our age none of this would be comprehensible to one person in a thouand.

Could anybody provide a link to it, information about the admirable Klauber, and explanation of the mysterious capital letters?

Her Immaculate Heart will prevail!


Ivan said...

I have found this.
C.P.S.C.M. Cum Privilegio Sacrae Caesaris Maiestatis

A.V. I do not know. There seems to be an abbreviation annos vixit but that doesn't make sense. If there aren't actually any dots, could it be Augsburg? The Klauber family seems to have come from there.

Unknown said...

The British Museum has a series of scans from the the Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Click on the image to the right (Kyrie Eleison) to view.


This link takes you directly to Virgo Potens:


The name "Katharina Klauber" is presumed by the Wellcome Collection to be a pseudonym for Joseph Sebastian and/or Johan Baptist Klauber. Wikipedia suggests Ignaz Sebastian.


Another location describes Cath as a statement of their Catholic faith. Might C.P.S.C.M stand for Comm Pass Sanct Cath Mart? (Pardon my faulty Latin.) The Klaubers' fine art publishing was based in Augsburg.

David Wijnants.

Kathleen1031 said...

Amen, may it be so, and soon!
Thank you for all you do, Fr. Hunwicke.

Gil Garza said...

The illustration is from a print collection entitled, Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary, illustrated by Johann Baptist Klauber circa 1750s printed in Augsburg. The illustrations are quite beautiful. Thank you for recommending.

British Museum: Collection object details https://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?assetId=594583001&objectId=1576109&partId=1

A. T. Wallace said...


C.P.S.C.M. = Cum privilegio Sacrae Caesareae Majestatis

Paulusmaximus said...

Seemingly, C.P.S.C.M. means "with Imperial Privilege". "Cum Privilegio Sacrae Caesareae Majestatis".

Banshee said...

C. P. S. C. M. shows up also on a German map from 1850, so presumably it is a government license or patriotic acronym.

Banshee said...

Apparently there were various Klauber brothers who printed a "Gallery of Saints" and a bunch of illustrated titles of the Virgin Mother, all with very nice Scripture bottles and such. Some guy online has a bunch of images up.

Btw, Father, please pray for my grandmother who just passed away yesterday.

Banshee said...

The Getty digitalized a bunch of the engravings, and the Internet Archive has them. The Getty says the brothers are Joseph Sebastian Klauber and Johann Baptist Klauber. Must go.

CHSIII said...

A.V. = Augustae Vindelicorum = Augsburg

C.P.S.C.M. = cum privilegio Suae Caesareae Majestatis = with (by) privilege of His Imperial Majesty

Bill White said...

One or both of the Klaubers produced a set of engravings of the Litany of Loreto. The one you described may be viewed at https://www.udayton.edu/imri/mary/l/litany-of-loreto-in-context.php

Anita Moore said...

Here is a link to the image: https://www.google.com/search?q=virgo+potens&client=safari&hl=en-us&prmd=imsvn&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwibh9DhopbiAhXqiVQKHRZIDn4Q_AUIEigB&biw=1112&bih=732#imgrc=Pp_3AeeaJesK7M

william arthurs said...

The University of Augsburg's website has a downloadable study, linked as a PDF from this page, of the Klauber brothers' engraved Bible illustrations, some rather spectacular.

Philip Sharpe said...

"Cum Privilegio Sacrae Caesareae Majestatis" is the authorization to publish and copyright protection. "exc A.V." refers to the place of publication: Augusta Vindelicorum.
This site explains the printer's abbreviations.


Josephus Muris Saliensis said...

As requested! At least in part. https://images.app.goo.gl/XDjJHSJfCMv9kQgr5

FatherTF said...

Thank you as ever, Father, for a most interesting post. I have spent a happy half hour consulting Mr Google...

The engraving is plate 26 of "Letania Lauretana" by Franciscus Xavieris Dornn (Augsburg: Johan Baptist Burckhart, 1750). Abe Books has a facsimile copy available of the work: Letania Lauretana. You can find a copy of a number of the engravings at this Pinterest page. A copy of the Virgo Potens engraving is at this Flickr page.

Klauber refers to the engraving workshop of the brothers Johann Baptist and Joseph Sebastian Klauber in Augsburg. I found an interesting and relevant essay by Peter Stoll: "Empire of Prints. The Imperial City of Augsburg and the Printed Image in the 17th and 18th Centuries"

CPSCM = Cum Privilegio Sacrae Caesaris Maiestatis

The Belgian Thomist said...

The Klauber family were 18th century German engravers. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klauber_(German_engravers) The capital latters stand for Cum privilegio suae Caesareae Maiestatis, a sort of copyright of that time

cyrus83 said...

https://quotesgram.com/img/quotes-about-virgin-mary/516816/ - This appears to be the engraving based on the description.

Wikipedia says the Klaubers were a family of engravers in Germany in the 18th century who for a time operated a company, made a series of engravings of saints, and an illustrated Bible that had a hundred such engravings. Their engravings also made it into some copies of the Missale Romanum.

Michael said...

For starters, the family: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klauber_(German_engravers).

No info on the inscription, yet.

cyrus83 said...

Oops - forgot the letter description:

cum privilegio sacrae Caesaris Maiestatis = CPSCM (refers to the Holy Roman Emperor)

Michael said...

C.P.S.C.M. = cum privilegio sacrae caesaris maiestatis (used in Germany in areas under the jurisdiction of the holy roman emperor). Basically a copyright. See Griffiths, Print and Printmaking: an introduction to the history and techniques (1996).

Michael said...

A V = Augusta (or Augusta’s) Vindelicorum = Augsburg

Fr. C. A. Fogielman said...

Dear Father,

Methinks C.P.S.C.M. stands for "Cum Privilegio Sacrae Caesareae Majestatis"; A. V. is for Augusta Vindelicorum, also known in Barbarian as Augsburg, a city in which the master engraver Johann Baptist Klauber dwelt from his birth in 1712 to his death in 1787. Also, could it be that you misread exe. for exc[udit]? That is generally the veb used for engravings.

Fr. C. A. Fogielman said...

Dear Father,

Methinks C.P.S.C.M. stands for "Cum Privilegio Sacrae Caesareae Majestatis"; A. V. is for Augusta Vindelicorum, also known in Barbarian as Augsburg, a city in which the master engraver Johann Baptist Klauber dwelt from his birth in 1712 to his death in 1787. Also, could it be that you misread exe. for exc[udit]? That is generally the veb used for engravings.

Br. Edmund said...

«Klauber Catholici sculpserunt et excuderunt Augustae Vindelicorum»
“C.P.S.C.M.” - “Cum privilegio Sacrae Caesareae Majestatis”


Br. Edmund said...

Virgo potens.

Object name Print Type Printmaking Genesis Klauber, Johann Baptist; Stecher
Klauber, Joseph Sebastian; Stecher
18th century
publication Augsburg
Dimensions height x width: 151 x 98 mm (sheet) Collection Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Library, inventory number Graph. A1: 1327Part of the series Marian representations Subjects Iconography:
92 C 2 * the story of Minerva (Pallas, Athena)
11 F 2 * Maria (without Christ Child)
45 C 1 * weapons
71 F 15 44 Jael kills the sleeping Sisera by driving the stake through his temples
71 U 42 73 * Holofernes is beheaded by Judith with his own sword; the maid may be on watch
45 C 41 * Army camp with tents
11 F 11 2 * Mary (with or without child) with symbols from the Lauretan litany

Jovan-Marya Weismiller, T.O.Carm. said...


Jhayes said...

A.V. May be Augusta Vindelicorum, the Roman name of Augsburg, where the Klauber Brothers publishing company was located.

Jhayes said...

Virgo Potens is part of a series of engravings llustrating the Litaniae Lauretanae. You can see some of them here by clicking the arrows at the sides.

Click here

David said...

Through Google Books, I found a reference that looks promising for the acronym:

"Germany. Cum Privilegio Sacrae Caesaris Maiestatis (CPSCM) (Used in the area within the jurisdiction of the Holy Roman Emperors)"

Prints and Printmaking: An Introduction to the History and Techniques
Antony Griffiths - 1996 (P. 134) (Google books link below)

Also I believe I found a scan of the image. Thank you so much for the description; it really does help one appreciate it better!

Link to Google Books

Andreas Meszaros said...

CPSCM is a copywright. It stands for "Cum privilegio sacrae Caesaris Majestatis".
Joseph Sebastien Klauber is the engraver from Augusta Vindelicorum (Augsburg) cir. 1700.

mazara said...


mazara said...


Sheep 1 said...

The Klauber brothers (Joseph Sebastian Klauber (1710 - 1768)
and Johann Baptist Klauber (1712 - 1787) did copper engravings in 18th century Germany, including all 58 of Mary's titles in the Litany of Loreto. Here is a link to a Wikipedia article about the Klaubers: Klauber-(German Engravers)

Here is a link to the image that you described: Virgo Potens Klauber Engraving These images periodically show up on the online auction sites.

I sent an email to the address on your Blogger profile with more links which might be of interest. I could not determine what those initials at the lower left stand for but the collector I recommended could probably tell you.

Sheep 1 said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Jhayes said...

C.P.S.C.M. took a while to find but is cum privilegio Sacrae Caesarea Majestatis< In other words "With Imperial Privilege" (of the Holy Roman Emperor).

See: https://www.delineavit.nl/wp-content/uploads/Terms-in-print-addresses.pdf

Michael H said...

A copy of the picture can be found here, with the rest of the set of which it seems to form a part, depicting the Litany of Loreto.


The Klauber in question seems to have been one Johann Baptist Klauber, of a family of engravers from Augsburg - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klauber_(German_engravers)

The initials apparently stand for Cum Privilegio Sacrae Caesaris Maiestatis, and were in use throughout the German part of the Holy Roman Empire, according to Antony Griffiths 'Prints and Printmaking'.


I hope the links work.

WGS said...

Joseph Sebastian Klauber (1710-1768) was a German miniaturist and engraver of mostly religious subjects from Augsburg. Does this match with the Klauber mentioned?

PiusLad said...

A little internet sleuthing comes up with this image:


CPSCM appears to be an abbreviation of "Cum Privilegio Sacrae Caesaris Maiestatis", a copyright/privilege used in Germany, in the areas of the Holy Roman Empire.

Cf. https://books.google.it/books?id=nbxFOR8ujlYC&pg=PA134&lpg=PA134&dq=c.p.s.c.m.+latin&source=bl&ots=11ih-7FTt9&sig=ACfU3U0OeD7qt-jFbhR2ozD4KfQDOmx5Zg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjoi4Lo2ZniAhXSKlAKHXbMB-0Q6AEwAHoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=c.p.s.c.m.%20latin&f=false

Wikipedia has an article on the Klauber family of engravers, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klauber_(German_engravers); "Klauber Cath" may be Katharina Klauber, possibly a pseudonym for Ignaz Sebastian Klauber.

I think the image comes from this book:


All this is guesswork, though.

Nicholas Rogers said...

Dear Fr. Hunwicke,

The inscription on your print can be expanded to read:

Cum Privilegio Sacrae Caesaris Maiestatis Klauber Catherina sculpsit et exeravit Augusta Vindelicorum

Katharina Klauber was a member of the Klauber family of engravers in Augsburg, which was a Free City in the Holy Roman Empire.

Nicholas Rogers, F.S.A.

Michael Sheil said...

I found some links you may find of use:

C.P.S.C.M = Cum Privilegio Sacrae Caesaris Majestatis

A.V. = Augustae Vindelicorum ("at Augsburg")



Best regards.

Banshee said...


I was going to look this up the other day, but I forgot. "Cath." or "Kath." was short for Catholic, as many of the other engraving companies in the area were Protestant, but they were not.

John Vasc said...

Father, the Klaubers were two brothers of a family firm of engravers in Augsburg:
Joseph Sebastian Klauber (1710–1768) and Johann Baptist Klauber (1712–around 1787).
Their insignia is an A followed by an inverted A. (The transversal is so slender, it can look very like a V).

See https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Klauber_brothers

Looking at that page, the Klaubers seem to have done a lot of engravings of work for Austrian religious foundations. Might your engraving conceivably memorialise the Franco-Austrian alliance of the Seven Years' War, against the Anglo-German alliance? (But that is only a wild guess.)
There was an Austrian-Turkish War in 1788, but that is too late for either of the brothers.

A set of Klauber engravings of the Litany of Loreto (?ca. 1750) is listed in a Quaritch catalogue - see here, scroll down to item No.21
The 'exe' seems rather to be 'exc.'- some Latin verb such as ?'excudit' (for 'printed by' - as 'sculpsit' already means 'engraved by').

As C.P.S.C.M precedes Klauber's name here too, perhaps it is an honorary title? e.g. Cavaliere or Chevalier, or some Latin title? Again, only a wild guess, but might the last three letters stand for [Cavalier] ?P... Seiner Catholischen Majestät ?
e.g. some title bestowed by e.g. the Holy Roman Emperor - (Charles VII or Maximilian III?)

Sheep 1 said...

Did you receive my emails with links and more information about this?