11 May 2017


I beg to remind you that, in as couple of days, the Fatima centenary will be under way. I wrote the following last October.

The Fatima visionaries, poor little peasant mites, are unlikely to have known this; but, in the first millennium, May 13 was sometimes a festival of our Lady within the Roman Rite. To me, who incline to share S John Paul's view that in the workings of Providence there are no coincidences, this seems interesting.

This is how it happened. In 609, Pope S Boniface IV dedicated the old Roman Pantheon, built originally by Marcus 'Actium' Agrippa but subsequently rebuilt after a fire, as the Church of Sancta Maria ad Martyres. He did this in collaboration with the emperor Phocas ... not an altogether nice chap, but possibly the last emperor, I think, not to use the style Basileus; it had thus taken more than six centuries to dissipate the old Roman gut sentiment which animated Brutus and his associates, to the effect that no-one in Rome ought to deem himself Rex ... but I'm rambling again ...

Phocas donated an Ikon of our Lady which is still enthroned above the Altar of that Church; and the relics of many of the martyrs were disinterred and brought into the church; hence its name. This was the period when Marian Ikons, and relics of Saints, used to be processed round the wall of Constantinople when barbarian enemies appeared on the scene; I rather suspect that  Pope S Boniface had in mind to construct a defensive powerhouse in Old Rome rather than merely to stimulate pious devotion. Pre-modern, and particularly First Millennium, Christianity has a very practical and down-to-earth side to it. Possibly Pope and Emperor may even have had in mind the idea that, just as Actium had (according to the Augustan PR machine) saved Rome, so the Theotokos and the Martyrs might do the same in their own day.

In the early centuries of the English Church, this festival on May 13 seems to have been important. The Leofric Missal, the Altar Book of the early Archbishops of Canterbury, based on texts brought to England by S Augustine, includes it and, interestingly, demonstrates the continuing relevance of this festival by including in the text later scribal additions and adaptations. Perhaps the Church of S Mary in Canterbury emulated the mother church in Rome. Something similar appears to have happened in Exeter (to which the Leofric Missal was later taken), where a Saxon church of Sancta Maria ad Martyres lay, I think, West of the present Cathedral and on the same axis.

I am sure that the significance of the Martyrs will have struck readers. The Third Secret of Fatima is full of the theme of Martyrs and Martyrdom; indeed, we are still living in an Age of Martyrs which rivals any earlier such age. I would draw the attention of those who do not know it to the official CDF documentary collection of 2000, The Message of Fatima, and especially to the fine and elegant exposition by Cardinal Ratzinger. To which I return on Saturday.

Sancta Maria ad Martyres, ora pro nobis.


Sprouting Thomas said...

"...no-one in Rome ought to deem himself Rex"

Wouldn't Rex Sacrorum be a really nice style for a classicizing Pontiff, say an Urban IX, to adopt? It would be a thing unashamedly cultic and sacrificial, it would affirm precedence over the other pontiffs - at the same time it would have a kind ironical humility, as a memento of lost temporal power. Moreover, the genitive is limiting, isn't it: the Vicar of Christ is given some of His kingship - if only when he stands before the altar?

If, as a bonus, the torpid Quirites are moved to regrow some civic spirit, riot and shout:
"...waving our red weapons o'er our heads,
Let's all cry 'Peace, freedom and liberty!'"

...then so much the better! O utinam ours were a Church in which we were allowed to dig random bits and bobs out of someone else's distant past and stick them on with delicious rabbit-skin gesso.

Dr. Eric said...

Fr. Hunwicke,

Are you aware of any ancient Feast of Our Lady on the 7th or 13th of October that had fell into obscurity before Lepanto or The Miracle of the Sun?

William Tighe said...

The Emperor Heraclius adopted the title in 629 or 630, in the form Basileus basileuon after the defeat of the Persians in a war which had raged since 602, so he was clearly adopting a version of the Sassanid Persian rulers' title Shahanshah (Old Persian Khšāyathiya Khšāyathiyānām or Middle Persian Šāhe Šāhān ), "King of kings." Soon, however, the standard Byzantine form of the imperial title became Basileus kai Autokrator , "King and Emperor," which it remained, so far as I know, ever thereafter.

Marco da Vinha said...

May 13th was an important feast day for the Patriarchate of Lisbon, and at the time Fátima was part of the Patriarchate.
Liturgical Providence, as Discussed. Kirby OSB would say.

Banshee said...

Wasn't May 13th the original All Saints Day, also thanks to the date of the Pantheon's reeducation as a church?

Hans Georg Lundahl said...

13 of october was "vigil of" a day we call "14 of october", which by the 13 day lag was in Russia 1st of october - Protection of the Theotokos.

Byzantium was protected against Slav invaders who fled when seeing a Lady protect the City - and the feast is more popular with Slavs than with Greeks.

Marco da Vinha said...

Dr. Eric: the last apparition was on a Saturday. Liturgical Providence yet again ;-)

Hans Georg Lundahl said...

Since a question was asked about Lepanto day, October 7 was St Bridget's day, still is in Sweden, till she moved over to October 8, in order to make room for Our Lady of the Rosary.

Dr. Eric said...

Not thinking of The Julian Calendar, I forgot about the Feast of The Protection of The Theotokos. Thank you for reminding me.

Dr. Eric said...

I wasn't aware of that either. Once again, there are no coincidences.