24 February 2019


I wonder if anyone knows exactly when the Byzantine preLent season was invented? It occurs to me that, if it was in place when S Gregory was apocrisiarius in Constantinople, he could have picked up the idea for the Gesimas there. You will remember that on his return to Rome and his election as Pope, he was much criticised because he made changes in the Liturgy which the admirably conservative plebs sancta Dei of Rome deemed to be Byzantinisations. But let us look at the Propers for  Sexagesima.

That great liturgist G G Willis (funny, isn't it, how so much of the best work on the early history of the Roman Rite was done by Anglican Catholics) pointed out that the propers for Sexagesima in the Missal of S Pius V and the Book of Common Prayer manifestly relate to S Paul; his own account of his tribulations in the Epistle being matched by the Parable of the Sower, so appropriate to the work of the Apostle to the Gentiles. (You will remember that the Pope's Mass, on these three Sundays before Lent, took place in turn at the three basilicas of Rome's great saints, Ss Lawrence, Paul, and Peter, which stand like protecting spiritual fortresses outside the City walls; and today, Sexagesima, Pope and people were at S Paul's.)

I don't like to tangle with as great a scholar as Willis; but with diffidence and respect I point out that this is not quite what the Begetter of the Gesimas, S Gregory the Great, himself actually says. Again I recommend those with access and a little Latin (Gregory's Latin is very easy) to read not only the extract which the Old Breviary gave in the third nocturn for Sexagesima, but the whole text of Homilia 15 in Evangelia (Migne, 76, columns 1131 and following). The emphasis here again is on the need for a sense of sinfulness as Christians approach the penitential season of Lent. The Holy Father picks up the Lord's explanation of the parable (the second section of the pericope, which the crass 'scholarship' of the twentieth century confidently and ludicrously assured us could not possibly be from the Lord's lips): i.e. the work of the Devil in frustrating the Gospel Word sown in our hearts, and the dangers of riches. It is this that becomes the basis of his attempt to stir up within his congregation an awareness of its sinful need to do penance.

[My incurable propensity to ramble inclines me to recommend the whole of the homily, not just the extract in the Breviary, if only for the sake of the (very 'modern') way S Gregory engages the congregation with his vivid account of the recent holy death of a devout cripple whom we all knew, who used to beg outside the Church of S Clement. Again, this is a classical, hands-on, mission sermon by a preacher who fears that his flock has lost its sense of sin. Plus ca change ...]

And, in the Divine Office, S Gregory's message is reinforced by the story of Noah. I hope you recall, from my post on Septuagesima, how S Gregory interpreted the parable of the husbandman hiring labourers for his vineyard. 'Morning' meant the period of Sacred History from Adam onwards [Septuagesima]; the 'Third Hour' was the period from Noah. So in the first nocturn of Mattins for Sexagesima Sunday we get the account of God's decision to punish human iniquity by a flood. Undoubtedly, that Flood evoked, for S Gregory's generation, vivid memories of the Great Tiber Flood of 589, followed by the epidemic which ended the life of many Romans, including Pope Pelagius II, S Gregory's own immediate predecessor.

But ... had all those who suffered in the Flood (either Noah's or Rome's) truly deserved, each individually, such punishment? I wonder if seminary courses dealing with 'Theodicy' take their starting points from Biblical and Patristic material. S Gregory, with the sort of realism from which our generation can shy away, meets head on the fact that a lot of people do their best to do good, but find themselves clobbered by tribulations. They flee earthly desires, and all they seem to get in return is worse wallops (flagella duriora). The solution is humiliter purgationis flagella tolerare: humbly to submit to the blows which cleanse us.

When did you last hear a sermon on Submission to God's Will ... whatever it be?


William Weedon said...

Thanks. It was a great homily. It’s in English here:


William Tighe said...

See Thomas J. Talley, The Origins of the Liturgical Year (1991 [second edition]: The Litugrical Press), pp. 183-189, who there writes (p. 184) "That preliminary week of lighter fasting, the 'tyrophagy,' during which dairy products are allowed to be eaten, was adding during the reign of the emperor Heraclius in the seventh century," giving for the statement a footnote reference to Alfred Rahfls, "Die alttestamentlichen Lektionen der griechischen Kirche," Mitteilungen des Septuaginta-Unternehmens der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Goettingen, Band I (Berlin, 1909-1915), pp. 202-205.

William Tighe said...

Further to my previous comment, Heraclius reigned from 610 to 641, while Gregory was apocrisiarius in C'ple from 579 to 585. So either Talley is wrong about the introduction of the C'plitan tyrophagy, or the Roman "pre-Lent" preceded in its origins that of C'ple. Talley also mentions (pp. 200, 219, 228-9 n. 59, & 230 n. 83) the Coptic "Fast of Heraclius" which is the week preceding Lent proper, but among the Copts observed with the same stringency as Lent itself. Citing Rahlfs (pp. 178-9) again, Talley states that this forefast was not in place in Alexandria in 577, but was by the time of (Coptic) Patriarch Benjamin (622-661).

Could it be that a "forefast" to Lent was one of the rare liturgical innovations "pioneered" by the Roman Church? Or are there Galllican, Hispanic, or north African precedents?

Fr PJM said...

I haven't heard a homily recently on submission to God, but I gave one this morning, inspired by your question, Father. In the first reading (Mass of St. Paul VI) it said: "in time of adversity: Wait on God, with patience, cling to him, forsake him not;
thus will you be wise in all your ways.
Accept whatever befalls you,"
I mentioned that in one of the other "great, monotheistic religions", whose name means "submission", one submits from fear of the Arbitrary and All Powerful, who could have made lying good, etc. But in the true religion, we sumbit to the loving and wise Providence. The hand of the Lord is upon us, but this hand has been pierced with a nail...

Matthew M said...

Fr. Hunwick-\
Wasn't there originally 4 "gesima's"? I cannot remember what it was called but I sure there was. Please advise and thank you.

Catholic State said...

Bishop Robert Dymek
(God rest his Soul) had sermons on submission to God's will and fasting almost weekly.
Coincidentally,he's the only priest I've personally met who enthusiastically encouraged the after Midnight Holy Communion fast.