18 September 2022

S Januarius and the Ordinariate

Oxford is a city of secrets; and one of its best kept secrets is its very personal relationship with the 1630s, an interesting decade when the Ordinariate very nearly happened ahead of its time. There appeared to be exciting ecumenical possibilities between England and Rome, partly helped by Charles I's laudably uxorious infatuation with his Queen Henrietta Maria.

First stop, if one wishes to do a pilgrimage to the 1630s, might be to contemplate the glass in Magdalen Chapel; 1632 and its baroque reinterpretation of the 'perpendicular' schemes in the windows of All Souls, New College, and elsewhere, each light being occupied by one saint. That in itself is interesting in a period commonly supposed to be 'Protestant'; and the selection of saints is even more so. They are not, as you might expect, a predominantly Biblical band; indeed, numerically they are less biblical than the saints in Oxford's medieval glass. Some of them are saints whose very existence plays a deft game of hide-and-seek with the canons of Enlightenment historicity, such as S Catherine with her wheel. There is S Anne 'Mater'; and S George; and S Januarius. Wow!!! S Januarius!! That admirable Saint who, tomorrow as ever was, will be celebrated in Naples, with supplications that, by the annual miracle of the liquefaction of his blood, he will guarantee the safety of that city! Will the news be propitious?

Many of the Saints in the window are so deliciously obscure that I cannot find them in my Dictionary of Saints. There is a strong cohort of Fathers: Ss Cornelius and Cyprian; Basil; a brace of Gregories; Dionysius; Polycarp; Hippolytus; Ignatius; Irenaeus; Clement. All this is faintly reminiscent of the Tractarian period: Fr Faber would have been happy writing biographies of Ss Eulalia and Theodosia; while Saint John Henry Newman would have felt at home among the Fathers (one recalls that feature of his character which Dr Manning never stopped suspecting: 'the old patristic Oxford Anglican tone'). A most provocative curiosity: only one of these saints is wearing a halo. She is labelled 'Sancta Maria Deipara'.

A quiet saunter along the curve of the High brings one to the porch of the University Church, built in 1637, grandly and exuberantly baroque, its twisted columns identical with those supporting Bernini's canopy in S Peter's, Rome; a tantalising hint of the Catholic Baroque England that just might have been. Enshrined within a jolly ensemble of classicising details is a female Figure royally crowned and holding a Child ... the 'Sancta Maria Deipara' we met in Magdalen. The statue in this porch was listed on the indictment of Archbishop Laud when he was to be martyred for being Popish. Some people claim to discern the traces of a Puritan bullet ... Czestochowa ...?

Sancta Maria Oxoniensis, ora pro nobis! Et beate Gulielme Laud, sis memor nostri!

A third statio is much more private; no public thoroughfare. The back quadrangle at S John's was built by Archbishop Laud in an elegant Renaissance style; a statue of blessed Charles Stuart at one end looks across to a statue of Queen Henrietta Maria. An interesting suggestion of the workings of Providence: that it was a King who had no mistresses, and promoted an ideology of Married Love, who was privileged with a crown of martyrdom (am I right in thinking that the same may be true of Louis XVI?).

If you want to have a better look at Queen Henrietta Maria, you could try the Old Common Room in Merton (the college in which the Queen resided during the Civil War), but they probably wouldn't let you in. I visited her once among the Roman Renaissance magnificences of Alnwick Castle in Northumberland; I suspect loyalist fervour demanded her mass-production.

In Oxford Cathedral, in the Lucy Chapel, you will find monuments of the royal servants who died (sometimes under arms) while the King's Majesty and his Court were in Oxford, quorum animabus propitietur Deus (as well as the Shrine of S Frideswide and a bust of beatus ille Doctor Veritatis Edward Bouverie Pusey).

What more could a devout visitor want?


tradgardmastare said...

Most interesting.
Can you suggest further reading on Charles, Laud and their faith please.

William Tighe said...

I will make three suggestions, in response to Tradgardmastare's question.

First, the best single article on Laud of which I am aware is "Archbishop Laud," by Nicholas Tyacke, in <*> The Early Stuart Church ed. by Kenneth Fincham (Macmillan Publishing, 1993), pp. 51-70.

Second, two big books by Anthony Milton: first, <*> Catholic and Reformed: The Roman and Protestant Churches in English Protestant Thought, 1600-1640 Cambridge University Press, 1995; second, <*> England's Second Reformation: The Battle for the Church of England, 1625-1662 Cambridge University Press, 2021.

Third, and very important for the background to Laud, Charles, and the rest, "Lancelot Andrewes and the Myth of Anglicanism," by Nicholas Tyacke, in <*> Conformity and Orthodoxy in the English Church, c. 1560-1660, ed. by Peter Lake and Michael Questier (Boydell & Brewer, 2000), pp. 5-33.

William Tighe said...

I would refer Tradgardmastare as well to this book review by Eamon Duffy:


Cf.: http://anglicandownunder.blogspot.com/2013/10/shifting-sands-of-anglican-theology-and.html