21 October 2015

Aeschylus and Euripides and Junia and the Gestapo

To a very fine seminar last Monday, led by Jas Elsner. As many readers will know, Adolf Hitler was by far the most significant benefactor of the Oxford Classics Faculty (called Litterae Humaniores) in well over a century. In the 1930s, Oxford became the home to many of the finest Classicists from the German universities: such as Eduard Fraenkel, 'the World's greatest Latinist' who (not without some opposition) walked straight from his Freiburg Chair into the Corpus Professorship. Elsner (who has clearly been spending a lot of time in the Corpus archives) showed that in his monumental Commentary on the Agamemnon, especially in the figure of Cassandra and in the fate of Agamemnon, Fraenkel's 'strictly philological' treatment of the ancient text is in fact constantly marked by the Holocaust experiences of European Jewry (Fraenkel was a Jew). And, in Pfeiffer's History of Classical Scholarship, largely written during the War, Ptolemy VIII, under whom the great men of the Learned City of Alexandria fled in what came to be called the secessio doctorum, is clearly framed as a Type of Hitler.

It is salutary sometimes to recollect upon ones good fortune; Fraenkel and Pfeiffer had been pupils of the 'legendary' Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorf ... what an Apostolic Tradition we callow and naive undergraduates of the 1950s and 1960s were privileged to be admitted to!

And the paradosis continues. Last Friday I went to an undergraduate performance of the Hippolytus in Oriel College (the quadrangle used was once the St Mary's Hall of which Cardinal Allen was Principal). Rather ... undergraduate; twenty minutes late starting because they couldn't get the patio heater to light up! But the Greek text was faultlessly learned (or should I mention that just occasionally the iambs sounded a trifle ... iambic) and vigorously delivered and the tragic conclusion really did grip the (albeit slightly chilled) audience. Oh, the charming, touching innocence of the young ... I bet none of them knew that Hippolytus was also the name of somebody who didn't write the text which Botte and Bouyer so lamentably adapted into that dreadful Eucharistic Prayer, their bibulous pencils dancing frantically as they drafted their opus on the terrace of a trattoria in the Trastevere while the Phaedras of the Night minced up and down. And I bet the young people also didn't know, when they got to the line describing Aphrodite as episemos en brotois, that this is a line detested by feminists because grammatically it rather subverts the daft claim that there ever was a 'Female Apostle' called Junia.

Good thing they didn't know ... the feminist Thought Police or the genderist Gestapo might have demanded its excision ...

Quaeritur ... if anyone's interested ... after the Hippolytus I watched the old 1962 film version, entitled Phaedra, with the myth transposed to a modern Greek ship-owning family ... Melina Mercouri as Phaedra, score by Theodorakis, you name it. Beta plus question-mark plus, I thought. The Wikipedia entry said it was popular in Europe, but a box-office flop in the US of A. I wonder why?


Patrick Sheridan said...

In Phaedra the hero acts as though he is jealous. But a modern man whose wife had said, "I've had an affair with your son," would say, "oh, you are a scream, what was it like?"

Belfry Bat said...

I think it more interesting that Paul doesn't use "apostle" to mean "cleric". He speaks of his own clerical office by the term "ancient" or "elder". I mean, today, when we say "missionary", we don't necessarily mean clerics (often, but not always; not identically). And it's all very well to point out apostolic succession and apostolic sees (and The Apostolic See), but from a strict logic point of view, the designation refers to a see whose bishop was counted an Apostle. Both an apostle and a bishop. Even supposing Junia was a woman, even supposing Paul counted her a Missionary of Christ's own sending, that doesn't mean she's part, or medium, of the succession. We have at least two words in the very philosophical Greek, so they can mean different things.