16 June 2015

Departed Worlds??? (1)

A Patrimonial friend has passed on to me a dear little volume called Euchologium Anglicanum; and, if that very title isn't an echo of an Anglican culture which has passed away, what is? It was printed in 1963. Could one imagine, in 2015, such a name being given to such a book anywhere in this solar system? But stay: let me tell you how it came into existence, and what it contains.

John Eyre Winstanley Wallis, sometime Scholar of Brasenose College in this University, and from 1945 Canon Chancellor of Lichfield Cathedral (d.1957), had begun to compose devotions for use after the Third Collect at Sunday Evensong in his Cathedral. "It seemed to me that the early Sacramentaries supplied the very models that I wanted, Christian but not technical. I set to work first to translate prayers from these, but I was driven in time to write prayers."

And at the beginning of 1957, Wallis proposed to a friend (and undergraduate contemporary), F C Geary, Fellow of Corpus 1928-1952, that he, Geary, provide Latin versions to accompany the English prayers Wallis had been "driven ... to write": "The Latin ... will be used mainly by the Vicar and his educated laity at their prayer desks, where the work of engaging the mind with the heart in its devotions is very greatly assisted by the use of Latin ...". In his Foreward, Geary remarks that Wallis's own English compositions were "based ... on the language and rhythms of the early Sacramentaries, which from long study were familiar to him".

If all that doesn't bring tears to your eyes, O ye hard of heart, nothing will. It conjures up a picture in which the parson knows the Roman Sacramentaries and his 'educated laity' understand how Latin would enrich their life of private prayer; a picture in which gentle and scholarly priests make their way across the Cathedral Close as formidably learned spinster ladies critically dissect last Sunday's sermons after collating manuscripts in the Chapter Library. Whatever happened to all that? Is it not a Departed World??? And, while that world had its lacunae, are we the better off or the worse off for its demise? For those of us with age and memories, it is perhaps suggestive ... and chilling ... to think how different the 1970s were from the 1950s. Yes ... you see what I mean! Just suppose the 1960s had never happened! And Euchologium Anglicanum wasn't the only little book to be published in 1963, was it ... ? But more of that later.

You want to know about F C Geary? You want to read examples of these prayers? And so you shall!


Joshua said...

It makes one wonder - what would have happened if the liturgical changes that have afflicted nearly all Western Christian bodies had not happened?

Elizabeth @ The Garden Window said...

I need to know more, Father!

Hierodeacon said...

Father John, I was an Anglo-Catholic youth in America in the 90s when the world you poignantly describe was all but a memory, but still faintly detectible if you knew where to look. (And I did know where to look – but even those places are now all but wiped out twenty years hence.) It fired my imagination and my heart, and is at times sorely missed; but glory to God its demise was, in part, what led me to the Orthodox Church, for which I am infinitely grateful.

Francis Arabin said...

Dear Father,

"Devotions" is such a goodly word betokening our vowed attachment to God's service. Devotions thus understood spring from the Divine Office itself. I wonder what has happened to those genuine manuals of devotion...gathering dust at St Philip's store and elsewhere.

Joshua said...

I am curious as to why the modifications made in the sixties are alleged to make the Roman Canon no longer the Roman Canon - when just as many words in the Canon were changed in the Missal of the Roman Curia, published in 1474 at Milan (of all places! where they maintain their own Rite to this day), and these changes - but for the addition of eumdem - have been maintained from then until the latest edition of the Roman Missal, both EF and OF.

Changed in 1474 (not to mention the change in 1499 of tibi to tibique and that of 1571, adding ejusdem):

ac < et
circumstantium < circum adstantium
eumdem add.
Amen add.
Amen add.
et add.
deditque < dedit
deditque < dedit
servi tui < tui servi
eumdem add.
Amen add.
eumdem add.
Amen add.
cum om.

By my count, that is six words changed or rearranged, eight added and one omitted, for a total of fifteen.

By contrast, in the sixties (leaving aside the addition by St John XXIII of the name of St Joseph, an addition desired by votaries of the Spouse of the Mother of God since the nineteenth century*), four words were added (quod pro vobis tradetur), two moved (mysterium fidei), five deleted (quotiescumque feceritis and the three eumdem's added in 1474) and four changed (Hæc into Hoc, and mei memoriam facietis into facite and meam commemorationem), for a total of fifteen.

The phrases made optional - parts of the two lists of saints, and four uses of "Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen" - are a different matter, as all right-thinking persons would retain them.

*In any case, many mediæval missals included, after Cosmas and Damian, a further list of saintly confessors: Hilarii, Martini, Ambrosii, Augustini, Gregorii, Hieronymi, Benedicti.

Joshua said...

What is most to be desired is the return, in the OF, of the many signs of the cross over the host and chalice during the Canon in the EF; and, to this end, EP II, EP III and EP IV ought have analogous signs of the cross added in also.

I recall my former parish priest (now a bishop) telling of how, when in seminary in the sixties, a visiting Dutch priest (but of course) offered Mass according to the latest fashion, for the first time, in the experience of the staff and seminarians, omitting the signs of the cross during the Canon: their dismay was palpable, if I remember the story correctly.

Herewith, EP II, with suggested crossings added (in the spirit of the 1474 Missal of the Roman Curia), plus a few phrases in bold from EP III and EP IV that enrich this rather too short prayer:

Vere Sanctus es, Domine, fons omnis sanctitatis. Haec er+go dona, quaesumus, Spiritus + tui rore sancti+fica, ut nobis Cor+pus et San+guis fiant Domini nostri Iesu Christi.
Qui cum Passioni voluntarie traderetur, accepit panem et gratias a gens bene+dixit, fregit, deditque discipulis suis, dicens: Accipite et manducate ex hoc omnes: hoc est enim Corpus meum, quod pro vobis tradetur.
Simili modo, postquam cenatum est, accipiens et calicem iterum tibi gratias agens bene+dixit, dedit discipulis suis, dicens: Accipite et bibite ex eo omnes: hic est enim calix Sanguinis mei novi et aeterni testamenti, qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum. Hoc facite in meam commemorationem.
Memores igitur mortis et resurrectionis eius, tibi, Domine, hoc sacri+ficium vi+vum et sanc+tum, panem + vitae et calicem + salutis offerimus, gratias agentes quia nos dignos habuisti astare coram te et tibi ministrare.
Et supplices deprecamur ut Cor+poris et San+guinis Christi participes + a Spiritu Sancto congregemur in unum.
Recordare, Domine, pro quibus tibi hanc oblationem offerimus. Memento Ecclesiae tuae toto orbe diffusae, ut eam in caritate perficias una cum Papa nostro N. et Episcopo nostro N. et universo clero et omni populo sancto tuo.
[Memento famuli tui (famulae tuae) N., quem (quam) (hodie) ad te ex hoc mundo vocasti. Concede, ut, qui (quae) complantatus (complantata) fuit similitudini mortis Filii tui, simul fiat et resurrectionis ipsius.]
Memento etiam fratrum nostrorum, qui in spe resurrectionis dormierunt, omniumque in tua miseratione defunctorum, et eos in lumen vultus tui admitte.
Omnium nostrum, quaesumus, miserere (tunsio pectus), ut cum beata Dei Genetrice Virgine Maria, beato Ioseph, eius Sponso, beatis Apostolis (cum Sancto N.) et omnibus Sanctis, qui tibi a saeculo placuerunt, quorum intercessione perpetuo apud te confidimus adiuvari, aeternae vitae mereamur esse consortes, et te laudemus et glorificemus per Filium tuum Iesum Christum, per quem mundo bona cuncta largiris.
Per ip+sum, et cum ip+so, et in ip+so, est tibi Deo Patri + omnipotenti, in unitate Spiritus + Sancti, omnis honor et gloria per omnia saecula saeculorum. Amen.

Jonathan Dandridge said...

Joshua, It could be argued that the change to the Mysterium Fidei, not only moving it out of the Hic Est Enim Calix but also adding the people's memorial acclamation, is a more radical change than just adding/deleting/modifying a couple of words.

Joshua said...

When somewhat tongue in cheek I compared the changes of 1474 and 1969 I was, of course, being ironic!

But it remains the case that silly people who say the Canon is not the Canon because of the changes made are being foolish.

The "mysterium fidei" should not have been moved, of course: but it is a phrase, and a very hard phrase to understand in its context, that is found in no other consecration formula, Eastern or Western: its lamentable removal was hardly invalidating nor heretical, though certainly disrespectful and most inadvisable.

The Memorial Acclamation is completely alien to the Roman Rite, and, if to be inserted anywhere, would be better placed after the Anamnesis.

It is much to be desired that, at each elevation, the priest and people cry "Dominus meus et Deus meus", or "Amen" at the least.

And, in the EF, the singing of an elevation motet (if the Sanctus and Benedictus not be polyphonic), such as above all the venerable "Ave verum", but also the "O salutaris hostia" (still used in France), or the "Pie Jesu" at Requiems, would be a marvellous restoration of devout mediæval practice.