16 May 2015

Bernard of Cluny and Bishop Grandisson of Exeter

In the Chapter Library at Exeter, there is an unpublished fragment which comes from a Mary Missal; a Missal containing only the Ordo Missae and the Masses of our Lady (analogous to the Requiem Missals we have nowadays). They were produced for use in the Lady Chapels of great churches which were able to provide an entire establishment ... clergy, books, vestments, plate, cantors ... for  use in such chapels. This fragment was corrected by the hand of Bishop John de Grandisson (pronounced Grahnsn; Bishop of Exeter in the fourteenth cenrury).

In this fragment, the Eastertide Mass of our Lady has a Sequence which neither the late Walter 'Patrimony' Frere nor I were able to find elsewhere. I print the remains below; [] indicates a hole in the manuscript. Fr James 'Patrimony' 'Ordinariate' Bradley kindly spotted that the first stanza came from the Mariale (III) of Bernard of Cluny; a long praise of our Lady in 15 Rhythmi; and the other stanzas are scattered around in V. I was accordingly able to fill up most holes in the text from Analecta Hymnica Medii Aevi; Volume 50, pp 423 sqq...

This hymn is associated with the name of S Casimir, because a text of it was buried with him. We know it best in the form of the translation Daily, daily, sing to Mary, which only uses a small selection from the hundreds of stanzas.

The question remains, whether the centonisation was done by Bishop 'Patrimony' Grandisson of Exeter himself, a great client of our Lady, for the Mary Missal which he had made for his Cathedral or for his collegiate foundation at Ottery; or whether someone else had already done the work.

At the bottom, for my own satisfaction, I give, from AH, a brief account of textual variants it records.

III.15 [O beat]a
per quam data
nova mun[do gaudia]
et aperta
fide certa
regna sunt caelestia.

V.19 [Quot dolore]s
et angores
tua sensit anima
cum in cru[cem
summ]um ducem
gens levavit pessima!

21 Corde tris[ti
pa]ssionis gladium
cum irrisum
et occisum
as[pexisti filium.]

28 Sed quam laeta
es effecta
die statim tertia
[cum rex fortis
v]ictae mortis
protulit indicia!

30 Nec nar[rari
nec pensari]
tuum possit gaudium,
quando maestis
[rex caelestis
pacis dedit nuntium.]


mss=most of the manuscripts; ms=one or few of them.

III.15 ms quam beata

V.19 mss quot angores quot dolores; ms tot dolores; ms et dolores; ms quot languores quot dolores; ms quot dolores quot angores
mss cum; ms dum; ms levavit impia.

V.21 mss tuum cernis filium; ms cernens filium; ms tuum vides filium

V. 28 mss o quam; ms es completa; ms et repleta [haec cum assonantia]; mss die facta tertia; ms die virgo tertia; ms facta die tertia; ms dum rex; ms qua rex; ms dirae mortis; ms pertulit; ms iudicia.

V. 30 mss quis narrare quis pensare; ms quis pensare quis narrare; ms hinc narrare, quis pensare; ms unde maestis; ms quoniam maestis.


Patruus said...

The first verse is to be found here -
(page 10 line 21f.)
and the remainder, with minor variations, further down at various places on page 14.

Walter said...

Wow ! Patruus, you must've recognised this treasure. St. Casimir was so young when he died. What a beautiful book.
Father Hunwicke, thank you for bringing this to light !

Mgr Andrew Wadsworth said...

Some scholars ascribe the 'Mariale' to Bernard of Morlaix rather than his contemporary,St Bernard. There seems to be some manuscript support for this view in the source you have cited (see Analecta hymnica medii aevi. Leipzig, 1886-1922, 56v., v.50, p.423-483.).

The 'Mariale' also figures in a fifteenth-century anthology now in the library of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. This manuscript appears to be one of the largest collections of Marian texts of its time. Assembled in the year 1409, perhaps in East Anglia, it contains forty-nine chapters about Marian devotions, liturgies, plainsong and prayers, among them several texts that were set by English composers.

Michael Morrow published a study of this in his "Marian texts and themes in an English manuscript: a miscellany in two parts" in Plainsong and Medieval Music (1996), 5:23-44 Cambridge University Press.

David said...

Sadly some of us have insufficient Latin to understandn your work.

Joshua said...

Was the exact same Mary Mass sung daily? That is, was it Salve sancta Parens and the rest (more or less as in the 1962 Missale Romanum for the feasts of Our Lady), or was it a Mass that had seasonal variants (as in the '62 for Advent, Christmastide, Eastertide, etc.), or were there a selection of texts - chants, orations, lessons - allotted to the days of the week?

I am curious to know, since it would surely have become wearisome to recite the same proper per omnia sæcula sæculorum.

Robster said...

This interesting article may shed some light on the matter.